We're comparing the Martial Adept feat and the Magic Initiate feat. While the effect of linear fighters vs. quadratic wizards most often manifests in class design (mostly due to spell access), there’s an interesting reflection of this design in the 5e feats, which we expect to be balanced against each other.
A "called shot" in Dungeons & Dragons is an attack that aims for a specific part of a target's body. While this mechanic has been removed from 5th Edition in the interest of greater simplicity, the system is fluid enough to layer on complexity where you want.
We're going to make the adventuring day agnostic as to character class. That way, everyone's going to be on a level playing field, regardless of how many encounters you run. How do we do this with linear fighters and quadratic wizards? It's simple. We kill the short rest.
Flanking is an optional rule in the D&D Dungeon Master's Guide that grants players advantage when their characters attack opposite sides of an enemy. This optional rule can enhance tactical aspects of your game. Understanding more about how this affects different characters can help you decide when to use flanking in your campaign. If you're a player who knows your DM employs the flanking rule, this may help you avoid some pitfalls.